So that you don't spend the most beautiful days of the year in bed sick, we have put together many tips for prevention. The following links will provide you with further information on the subject of "healthy on holiday".
Arrival and departure
To ensure that your holiday already starts with the journey, you should already work out the route and possible alternative routes before starting your journey. Start your journey well rested and, even as a passenger, refrain from drinking alcohol in advance, as this greatly reduces your ability to react. Be considerate and alert in traffic and be prepared for sometimes catastrophic road conditions. Especially if you are heading into the winter holidays, make sure you have up-to-date information on road conditions.
Travel nausea on the road
When the human brain cannot visually perceive various acceleration forces, the vestibular system typically reacts with symptoms such as yawning, sweating, nausea and vomiting, and even circulatory collapse.
The following tips will help you combat travel nausea:
- Look in the direction of travel.
- Do not read during the journey.
- Eat before and during the trip only light food.
- Chewing gum helps against nausea.
- If all this does not help, there are special remedies against travel sickness in pharmacies.
If you travel across time zones, time shifts occur that stress your biological rhythm and disrupt your sleep and wake rhythms. Emerging symptoms include feelings of exhaustion and hunger, decrease in responsiveness and concentration, and increased urination and bowel movements. To minimize the effects of jet lag, keep the following tips in mind once you arrive at your destination. Adjust to local time and get plenty of sleep the first night. Furthermore, certain foods will help you to stimulate your sleep (carbohydrate-rich foods) and wake (protein-rich foods) rhythms. Especially in the USA, melatonin tablets are recommended to overcome jet lag, although their effectiveness is controversial.
Hygiene tips for the trip
Water / drinking water
Be sure to check the quality of drinking water at your holiday destination before you travel. In many countries, including the Mediterranean, tap water is contaminated with a number of pathogens and bacteria. Boil the drinking water consistently. As soon as the water has boiled, most viruses and bacteria have been killed. Better yet, switch to industrially bottled beverages and drink only boiled liquids or carbonated sodas. Stay away from ice cubes, as they may be made from contaminated water.
Filtering and disinfecting drinking water
The easiest way to sterilize and filter drinking water is with a cotton cloth laid several times. For disinfection, it is best to use chemical agents (chlorine), which kills most bacteria and viruses but leads to a change in the taste of the water.
In countries with reduced hygiene conditions, eat only selected foods. Avoid unpeeled vegetables and fruits, unpasteurized milk, raw meat and fish, and salads. All food that is washed should also be cleaned. For this purpose, we offer you an overview of some foods and drinks that are generally recommended, questionable or should be avoided altogether. Adjust your diet to the local conditions, then you can enjoy your vacation.
- Anything freshly cooked and fried (e.g. lean, well-done meat, noodles, rice, potatoes, soups, but also onions, beans, peas, etc.)
- Peelable fruit (e.g. Bananas, oranges, pineapples, coconuts, mango)
- Mineral water, tea and coffee and industrially produced soft drinks
- Spices and essence (salt, pepper, vinegar, cooking oil, curry, chili)
- Poultry, fish, seafood, crabs, shrimp, mussels
- Dairy products of all kinds (fresh milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese)
- Frozen food (possibly the frozen chain has been interrupted)
- Crude fish (e. g.E.g., oysters) or raw meat (e.g., tartar)
- Raw, cold, stale foods, salads, ham, sausage
- Oily or greasy foods (e.g. mayonnaise-containing potato salad, eggs - sandwiches)
- Ice cubes, ice cream, open cold drinks of non-industrial origin
- Food packed in plastic film (e.g. sliced fruit)
Sun and heat protection
Let your skin tan slowly. It's healthier and lasts longer! When you reach your holiday destination, despite all the anticipation of the sun, avoid exposing yourself to the sun's intense rays straight away. The closer to the equator or the higher up in the mountains you are, the more intense the sun's rays are, even when cloudy, and the quicker your skin will redden. Reflection from water or snow can also double your skin exposure. (An example: sunbathe for 30 min in the Canary Islands, you expose yourself to the same UV radiation as 1 h in Munich!)
The short-wave, high-energy ultraviolet rays (UV rays) not only tan your skin, but also cause sunburn. While UVA rays tan your skin, unfortunately causing sun allergies, skin aging and the increased risk of skin cancer, UVB rays cause the skin damage of sunburn.
There are typically four skin types that tolerate the sun differently.
|Skin color||Apparently fair, pale||Light||Light, light brown||Light brown|
|Breast nipples||Very Light||Light||Dark||Dark|
|Hair||Reddish||Blonde, brown||Dark blonde, brown||Black|
|Sunburn||Always severe, painful||Always severe, painful||Rare, moderate||Scarcely|
|Intrinsic protection||5-10 min.||10-20 min.||10-20 min.||40 min.|
Any sunburn damages the skin and can cause premature aging or even skin cancer. Moreover, malignant skin tumors can develop from it. Therefore, avoid too much sun. If painful reddening occurs in the evening after sunbathing, avoid the sun in the near future and care for the skin with appropriate creams and gels. A proven home remedy is moist compresses with cold water.
Sun protection factor
The sun protection factor indicates how much longer you can stay in the sun with the sunscreen: Factor 12 increases your self-protection time (see Skin Types) by a factor of 12.
Sunstroke and heat exhaustion
The best way to protect yourself against sunstroke is to stay out in the sun only briefly and always wear a head covering. If circulatory problems and nausea do occur (e.g. after standing in the heat for a long time), you are at risk of heat exhaustion. Recover in the shade, put your legs up and cool down with water.
There are different causes of heat exhaustion, all of which should be taken seriously and can end in heat stroke.
Heat exhaustion due to lack of water
is brought on by insufficient water intake in a heat stress situation. Initial signs include severe thirst, loss of appetite, restlessness and skin tingling. Provide fluid replacement and cooling and seek medical attention immediately.
Heat exhaustion due to salt deficiency
is caused by profuse sweating, such as during strenuous, sweaty activity. The first signs are dysfunctions in some organs. Other symptoms are increasing fatigue, facial pallor, headaches and severe muscle cramps. In this case, pay attention to a sufficient nutrient balance, not only through water, but also through salt. Avoid strenuous activities completely if you have gastrointestinal problems (diarrhoea, vomiting). To compensate, rest, cool down and drink plenty of fluids. But above all, ensure salt intake.
Heat exhaustion due to lack of sweat
occurs especially during prolonged stays in hot climates and can end in a state of exhaustion of the sweat glands. Small blisters appear on the trunk and upper arms and sweating subsides. As soon as you notice weakness, dizziness and shortness of breath, you should leave these areas, take it easy and seek medical observation. When you return, you should carefully accustom yourself to the heat again, otherwise heat stroke is imminent.
Heat stress and heat stroke
Prevent physical overexertion, especially with untrained bodies or clothing that is too warm. Avoid sunbathing if you are overweight, under the influence of alcohol, taking medication or have an infection. Constant heat stress (day and night) can lead to a breakdown of the heat regulation system (= heat stroke), as can insufficient fluid intake. Immediately go into the shade, cool your body with wet compresses and seek medical treatment. If you notice signs such as a rise in body temperature, severe headache or reddening and drying of the skin, you should go to hospital as soon as possible. Take these symptoms seriously, the mortality rate for severe forms is 20%!
Protective measures: The golden 10 e-domizil sun tips
Rule of thumb: let your skin tan slowly. This is healthier and lasts longer!
- Use a sunscreen with a high sun protection factor at the beginning of the holidays!
- Stay in the shade at the beginning if possible, you will also tan there.
- Apply the sunscreen in the morning half an hour before sunbathing.
- Avoid the particularly intense rays of the sun at noon!
- Wear sun-proof clothing and cream the uncovered parts of the body.
- Use a higher sun protection factor on shoulders and nose!
- Creme again after bathing or use waterproof sunscreens.
- Consider the possible side effects mentioned in the package insert when taking medication.
- Do not use aftershave, perfume, deodorant and eau de toilette, this can cause ugly pigmentation spots.
- As an allergy sufferer, use only sunscreen gels without emulsifiers and preservatives.
Tick bites are so dangerous because the spider-like animals can transmit highly dangerous diseases such as Lyme disease or meningitis. Therefore, before you leave, find out if there are any dangers in your holiday region, and if so, what they are. Ticks carrying the life-threatening TBE virus (can lead to meningitis) even appear in some parts of central and eastern Europe (e.g. southern Germany).
The habitat of ticks
Ticks are particularly likely to linger on the edges of woods or paths, as well as forest clearings with tall grasses. There, the ticks are stuck in the grass, ferns, twigs and bushes at heights of no more than 1 - 1.5 meters. In addition, stream edges, deciduous or mixed woodland areas without grassy undergrowth and some animals (e.g. birds, mice, hedgehogs, deer and roe deer) are popular places to stay. After a trip into the countryside, you should thoroughly check your body and clothing for ticks. Ticks particularly like to bite into warm, moist places with good blood circulation, such as the hairline, the back of the neck, the armpits or the back of the knees. You should remove a tick that is stuck in the skin as quickly as possible. To do this, use tweezers, or even better, special tick forceps, which are available in pharmacies. Grasp the animal with barbs and teeth directly above the skin and pull it out slowly and carefully. Be careful not to get the head stuck or damage the tick's body, which can lead to infection. Refrain from using any supposed aids such as oil, glue, creams, or alcohol.
Travel for the elderly
Trips for senior citizens
Especially before travelling long distances, you should be thoroughly examined and advised by your doctor. People with cardiovascular problems should take appropriate emergency medication with them or, even better, travel only in expert company. If you have high blood pressure (over 200/100 mmHg), severe cardiac arrhythmia or a cardiac insufficiency, severe respiratory disease (e.g. bronchial asthma) or a recently survived heart attack (up to 6 weeks), you should not fly at all.
Special travel risks for senior citizens
Make sure you drink enough during the whole trip. Loss of fluid leads to heart and circulation problems. Already existing clinical pictures can worsen in warmer climates. Therefore, take sufficient quantities of all medication for personal use with you. Have your doctor compile a list of all the medication you need, which can be very helpful on site and may even save your life.
Traveling with children
Your children are more at risk from infectious diseases than you are. It is particularly important to have all the necessary vaccinations beforehand. In addition, make sure that your children are not in the sun for too long or wear a cap and a T-shirt and apply lotion regularly.
Traveling by air with children
Children are particularly sensitive to confinement, high noise levels and low humidity. Therefore, have your children drink or chew something before takeoff and landing to help them cope with the pressure changes. If your children have acute colds, postpone the flight.
Your children's skin is particularly sensitive to sun exposure. Malignant skin tumors often occur after childhood sunburns. Therefore, always make sure your children are well covered with sunscreen with a high protection factor (SPF 15 upwards is recommended). Also, have your children wear a hat, sunglasses, and a light, dark, breathable T-shirt. This will also protect them from heat exhaustion at the same time. You should also make sure that your child drinks plenty of fluids and avoids excessive physical exertion in the sun. For activities with small children, the weaker morning and afternoon sun are particularly suitable.
"Last minute" travel
Inform yourself sufficiently about infectious diseases at your holiday destination, even on last-minute trips.
Vaccinations that can be carried out at short notice
Almost all vaccinations can be given up to the day of departure, refreshments are even possible on the day of departure. Visit your general practitioner and have vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and polio refreshed. Until one day before departure an active hepatitis A vaccination (protection period of 1 year) is still possible. On the other hand, vaccination against typhoid fever or meningococcal meningitis must be given at least 10 days before departure for it to be fully effective.
Vaccinations with a minimum time interval
Please note that vaccinations against yellow fever, hepatitis A + B combined, hepatitis B, Japanese encephalitis and rabies require a minimum time interval. In the case of yellow fever this is at least 10 days, but in the case of rabies 3 weeks in order to achieve sufficient protection.
Disadvantages of short-term vaccinations
Since short-term vaccinations may cause side effects - especially flu-like symptoms - you should be vaccinated as early as possible. For last-minute trips, your family doctor will advise you on the risks you can or should take.
Adaptation to great heights
The lower air pressure at high altitudes requires a slow adaptation to the changing conditions. The lower air pressure is responsible for the oxygen saturation of the blood, the number of red blood cells (important for oxygen transport) and the ability of the tissues to extract oxygen from the blood. A drop in air pressure is followed by a drop in the supply of oxygen to the body. The body reacts to this with a higher breathing rate and pulse. With increased exhalation, more carbon dioxide is released, which in turn upsets the acid-base balance. The kidneys can compensate for this effect, but need a few days to get used to it. Meanwhile, the blood becomes alkaline and the body can no longer breathe quickly, preventing it from adapting further to altitude.
"Climb high, sleep low"
Plan your mountain hike carefully and divide it into small stages. Make sure you are well informed about the route. Keep in mind that the speed of the ascent is crucial for altitude adaptation. A slow ascent is good for your health. Take regular rest days, especially at high altitudes (high mountains). After climbing, return to the starting point in the evening to sleep ("climb high, sleep low"). If you already feel the first signs of altitude sickness, you must ascend particularly slowly. In general, a well-trained body adapts better to high altitudes. In any case, climb calmly and slowly.
Important: drink plenty!
Remember to drink enough fluids (4 - 6 liters per day). Drink well above your thirst, this will reduce emerging pains of altitude sickness and counteract the onset of "thickening" of the blood.
Loss of appetite, headaches, insomnia and confused dreams, as well as nausea, vomiting and a feeling of tightness in the chest are the first warning signals from your body. As soon as you notice these, you should not expect your body to continue to rise. In advanced stages, you will experience shortness of breath, coughing, bluish lips and whitish sputum, and fluid will collect in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Once edema forms in the brain, extreme headaches, drowsiness, dizziness, behavioral abnormalities and occasionally hallucinations occur. At this stage, you should descend at once by at least 1000 metres in altitude and add oxygen, otherwise there is a risk of unconsciousness.
Take the most common medications with you, so that you can take care of yourself on site in case of illness. In addition to the tried-and-true painkillers, you should pack the medications of your personal use. For remote destinations, seek expert advice from your family doctor or tropical institute.
Finally, a brief overview:
In your first-aid kit, you should definitely pack general painkillers (for pain, inflammation, fever), gastrointestinal remedies (for diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea), circulatory, insect repellent, disinfectant, wound ointments, bandages (small scissors, adhesive plasters, gauze bandages, safety pins, razor blade) and medicines for personal use.
Diarrhea, exhaustion, and heat exhaustion will cause you to lose water and salt. To compensate for these, the following options are available:
Drink a specially balanced solution every hour. To do this, dissolve 3.5g of table salt, 1.5g of potassium chloride, 2.5g of sodium bicarbonate and 20g of glucose in a litre of water. Or drink 1 litre of black tea with 1 teaspoon of salt and 10 teaspoons of sugar (preferably dextrose). Of course, there are also appropriate drugs in the pharmacy.
For some complaints, you can help yourself without medication and resort to so-called home remedies.
- For allergies: calcium tablets
- For diarrhea: drinks such as tea, cola, mineral and yeast preparations, as well as foods such as rusks, oatmeal or salt
- For inflammation (eg. e.g. throat): hot drinks, bed rest, cough drops
- For constipation: dried fruit, fruit cubes, lactose or flaxseed
- For vitamin deficiency: multivitamin tablets
- Additional sun protection: carrots and carrot juice
Diarrhea while traveling
In warm regions, gastrointestinal disorders are common. Adhere to the following rules to avoid problems with your stomach:
- Always boil water, especially for food preparation.
- Buy bottled drinking water at the supermarket.
- Peel fruits.
- Use ready-made tea or milk powder you brought with you. Especially in the Mediterranean region, dairy products often contain dangerous pathogens.
- Make sure you drink enough fluids. (See also fluid replacement)
- Dehydration makes itself felt through thirst, fatigue, apathy, loss of appetite and in children, by quergeliges behavior. Seek urgent medical attention in advanced stages (sunken eyes, dry tongue).
Health tips - The 10 golden e-domizil-Rules
- Get information about foods typical for your travel destination and drinking water quality
- Protect yourself well against the sun
- Do not swim in prohibited waters
- Only walk barefoot walk barefoot in clean places
- Protect well against mosquitoes and insects
- Pharmacy with the most necessary medicines
- Don't forget contraception
- Consequential malaria-Prophylaxis
- Contact addresses for emergency on site (Embassy, doctors)
- Individual advice and prevention
Risks of accident
On mountain tours
Prepare yourself thoroughly for your tour and do not overestimate your capabilities. Especially in the high mountains and on longer tours you should be physically fit and adjusted to the changed climatic conditions (high altitude acclimatisation, altitude sickness).
Once you arrive at your holiday destination, you should stay away from unknown waters. Bathing in inland waters (lakes, ponds, streams) and walking barefoot on damp ground can easily injure and infect you. Therefore you and your children should always wear shoes in such areas. Only in the case of chlorinated swimming pools is there no danger.
What does condom mean in ...?
- English: condom
- French: préservatif
- Greek: profyltico
- Italian: preservativo
- Spanish: condón
Where can I get condoms?
- France Pharmacy, supermarket, vending machine on the street
- Greece: Pharmacy, supermarket, newsstand
- United Kingdom: Pharmacy, supermarket, vending machine in public toilets
- Italy: Pharmacy, supermarket
- Spain: Pharmacy, supermarket, vending machine in pubs and nightclubs
- USA: Pharmacy, supermarket, in the big cities also in toilets in restaurants and hotels
How much do condoms cost?
- France: 0,50 Euro
- Greece: 0,30 Euro
- United Kingdom: 0,50 Pounds
- Italy: 0,80 Euro
- Spain: 0,50 Euro
- USA: 0,50 Dollar